Jeff Shiver. Our proactive holistic service solutions (Reliability Support for performance improvements and Asset Management for real-time monitoring) can be aligned to deliver targeted improvements based upon predetermined technical and commercial KPIs. If you improve the reliability of your equipment, production quality, increased capacity and profitability will follow. In an effort to improve equipment reliability, the company approached ExxonMobil engineers to determine a lubricant solution capable of reducing failures and extending regreasing intervals. As an operations supervisor, knowing how to manage people is not enough. In a few instances, product quality and maintenance management programs acknowledge equipment reliability as an issue. If you look closer, you will see us. Regulations, codes, and standards empower justification for good practices to not be ignored. Improve the assets reliability by applying continuous improvement techniques such RCM and RCA. Improve the reliability of single measurements and/or increase the number of repetitions of each measurement and use averaging e.g. Equipment Reliability. Inconsistency Let's go back to our sexism survey for a moment. In part, this omission is created by our inability to assign responsibility for equipment reliability. Looking at these factors in isolation will help you understand which parts of your manufacturing process need and should be improved to eliminate all losses and maximize productive time . Improve equipment reliability analysis by integrating reliability analysis with preventive maintenance. Government & Public Works. However, these programs do not include specific programs that will improve reliability. Learn the process. As companies around the globe look to improve equipment reliability I can’t help but think of the Technicians and Craftspeople I meet after a conference presentation. Delivering innovation and service to help you succeed. Repair Specifications. In an effort to improve equipment reliability, the company approached ExxonMobil engineers to determine a lubricant solution capable of reducing failures and extending regreasing intervals. The reliability and mechanical integrity of equipment has been improved across the board through these regulatory bodies, informing and enforcing RAGAGEPs to be used when needed. 3. Planned downtime, on the other hand, should be used as invested time to perform proactive measures that keep equipment in good working condition. Life cycle cost, ease of maintenance, and reliability must become their primary focus. It is generated by passing high-velocity air through an orifice that pulls oil into the air stream. C:\Users\Mike\Documents\Lifetime Reliability\LRS Maintenance Methodology\6 ways to improve Maintenance and Production.docx 2 If you want your people to deliver high equipment reliability, do they know what great reliability looks like; exactly? Technical measures to improve the reliability of PCB equipment: plan selection, circuit design, circuit board design, structural design, component selection, manufacturing process and other aspects, the specific measures are as follows: (1) Simplify scheme design. In this article, we will explore four key ways in which Maintainers and Maintenance Management can impact on equipment reliability, and offer some practical suggestions for how they may be able to assure, and improve reliability through better maintenance. The result? By maintaining the equipment properly or fitting more reliable equipment) Making changes such that the overall system continues to function satisfactorily even when a failure occurs (e.g. Political opinion polls, on the other hand, are notorious for producin… Equipment. Deliver performance. 2. Teach and ask, don’t observe and judge. Take note of the little things. Increased reliability naturally leads to fewer failures — which means fewer opportunities for hazardous incidents and better compliance with strict environmental standards. By continuing to browse this website, you are giving your consent to the use of cookies. So what do these terms mean and how do these things affect each other? For anyone tasked with safeguarding operational effectiveness, success can be measured by improving Mean … The astute reliability professional views new equipment in terms of the cost of ownership, not simply the cost of purchase. First by providing the team insight on what could go wrong and which areas of the equipment provide the highest risk (not just frequency). Reliability prediction requires knowledge of the following factors: The MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) and MTTR (Mean Time To Repair). Reliability Analysis in a CMMS Software Solution. Items will eventually fail. Improve equipment reliability, optimize inventory and reduce costs. The actions that you can take to improve reliability fall into two major groups: Making failures less likely to happen in the first place (e.g. How to test: Repeat single measurements and … How Oil Mist Can Increase Equipment Reliability Marc Vila Forteza, Petronor. Reliability can be increased by taking care to make measurements carefully and accurately. Let's look closer at some things that cause measurement tools to be unreliable and some ways to improve the reliability of measures. Assembling equipment with the proper tools and hardware improves performance and reduces the risk of reliability issues. People ask me where they can get knowledge that will help them improve their equipment reliability. 5 Ways to Improve Equipment Reliability and Avoid Downtime in Your Food Processing Plant. Fill out the form below to see how John Crane can help improve your equipment reliability. The first step in any reliability improvement project is to identify and quantify the causes of unreliability, so that a prioritized plan of improvement can be developed, justified and implemented. |, Dynamic Lift Up-stream Pumping Face Technology. This article has outlined four tools that can be used to improve equipment reliability. Posted on June 27, 2017 June 26, 2017 by tradequipintl. 2. For any change to happen in the field to improve equipment performance, there needs to be prioritization and an allocation of time to make it happen through the proper channels. There is one thing that food processing plants cannot afford: downtime as a result of equipment failure. References 1. Assemble a multidisciplinary team to participate in the reliability studies. Accurately Record Maintenance History. Improve the assets reliability by applying continuous improvement techniques such RCM and RCA. Breakdowns can be caused by a number of factors and, in critical operations, the downtime associated with equipment failures can have a major impact on production. To have oil equipment operating efficiently and reliably is demanding, expensive, and requires performing these tasks: This agreement is an integrated pump and seal maintenance and repair program that provides customer support for up 12+ years. 5. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes – Part 3 – Unknown Benefit…Intellectual Capital. Machinery Prediction p7 Drive equipment reliability using smart field devices. ExxonMobil engineers recommended the company make the transition to Mobil Centaur XHP™ 461 heavy-duty grease. Well, the answer is to improve the reliability of your equipment. This guides the maintenance manager to optimized preventive maintenance task lists. Measure process variables, such as the MTBF and re-occurring failure modes of a piece of equipment. Cookies Policy, Rooted in Reliability: The Plant Performance Podcast, Product Development and Process Improvement, Musings on Reliability and Maintenance Topics, Equipment Risk and Reliability in Downhole Applications, Innovative Thinking in Reliability and Durability, 14 Ways to Acquire Reliability Engineering Knowledge, Reliability Analysis Methods online course, Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Online Course, Root Cause Analysis and the 8D Corrective Action Process course, 5-day Reliability Green Belt ® Live Course, 5-day Reliability Black Belt ® Live Course, This site uses cookies to give you a better experience, analyze site traffic, and gain insight to products or offers that may interest you. December 3,2019 | 2 minute read . Creating the future. What are the Best Reference Books for Quality Engineers? By replacing or refurbishing existing equipment with reliable products engineered for environmental compliance, John Crane can help customers contain fugitive emissions and maintain high safety records while also enhancing efficiency. Want a better solution for remediation? Optimize the number and performance of PM tasks while it maintains an appropriate balance between cost and benefit. 2. 5 Keys to Maintain Equipment Reliability ... way that it’s effective is if I have a continuous improvement loop that relies on the feedback of the technicians to improve the job plan. A surveyto measure reading ability in children must produce reliable and consistent results if it is to be taken seriously. Helping solve the world's challenges. To understand how to improve overall equipment effectiveness at your plant, you first need to have a deeper understanding of the main factors used in OEE calculations and the losses they measure. As part of the maintenance strategy, he says: • Map out your assets. By replacing or refurbishing existing equipment with reliable products engineered for environmental compliance, John Crane can help customers contain fugitive emissions and maintain high safety records while also enhancing … Root Cause Analysis for Team Members 4. It’s imperative to learn about the equipment and the products being overseen as well. Improving the availability of the whole plant should be d… If you currently have a preventive maintenance (PM) program in place and want to improve it, there are 10 steps you can follow to do so. 3. To learn more, read our. Selecting a Wear Solution to Improve Equipment Reliability For industrial companies that process abrasive materials, protecting equipment from wear is an ongoing challenge. Use high-quality lubricants. This would be achieved by improving current maintenance practises and strategies using RCM principles. Wear Solutions is a specialized branch of fabrication having to do with the selection and installation of material linings for specific applications. There is no one way to improve equipment reliability, simply because the cause of unreliability is variable. Hundreds of engineering experts. Finally, avoid actions that promote a culture of rewarding the “hero” who races in to save the day … Comparatively, equipment that is assembled using precision tools experiences fewer failures than equipment where precision tools were not yet. Success will envelop things like a reduction in emergency maintenance calls, technicians equipped with the training and technology to better maintain equipment, and a reduction in money spent to perform corrective actions. How to improve reliability of PCB equipments FIVE CAMERA 2D/3D In-Line AOI System with Exclusive OMNI-VISION® 2D/3D Inspection Technology - Mirtec MV 7 OMNI Series. They must work together with a common objective ─ to achieve the best performance from all plant equipment and systems. How to Improve Equipment Uptime through Managed Reliability A sure-fire way to improve Mean Time Between Repair for big results. Assuming your fiscal year starts January 1, November and December is the time to plan your jailbreak! fix control variables, choice of equipment. In fact, you are probably in the process of trying to pick the lock. The astute reliability professional views new equipment in terms of the cost of ownership, not simply the cost of purchase. Reliability is Everybody’s Respo… The availability will not improve unless changes are made to upgrade the asset. This is the fourth article in a series of eight articles on Reliability Improvement. This website uses cookies to ensure users have the best online experience. 10 Things I Can Do Today To Improve Equipment Reliability! The first step in any reliability improvement project is to identify and quantify the causes of unreliability, so that a prioritized plan of improvement can be developed, justified and implemented. At Smiths we enable modern life. Note that downtime is composed of planned and unplanned events. Recommendation. Innovating for our customers. Machines: Any equipment, tools, etc., needed to do the job; Materials: Consumables, parts required; Measurements: Data generated from the process; All of these items combine together to create some output or event. Get an answer for 'How do we improve the reliability of an experiment? ' Recommendation. Following these steps will uncover inefficiencies, including over- and under-scheduled PMs, equipment with PMs that don’t need them, and noncritical equipment that is prioritized over critical equipment for preventive maintenance. Know what you have. Over 200 global locations. ExxonMobil engineers recommended the company make the transition to Mobil Centaur XHP™ 461 heavy-duty grease. Improving equipment reliability through smart asset management . 4. 3. Track all maintenance histories on assets. 4. Test new lubricant deliveries. If you can improve the reliability of your equipment, product quality, increased capacity and profitability will follow. Is your computer running too hot? ), safety and other factors. Identify causes of poor reliability. For example, in the calculation of the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) introduced by Nakajima [], it is necessary to estimate a crucial parameter called availability.This is strictly related to reliability. Fewer failures and an improved corporate image. If you would like to see a PDF of a presentation about TapRooT® and Equifactor®, click here. Downtime due to unplanned breakdowns usually cause more adverse impacts to the system’s availability. Create a safe learning environment with digital maintenance checklists. Practical assessments are designed to test your practical skills: how well you can design and carry out an experiment and analyse results, but also your understanding of the purpose of the experiment and its limitations.One aspect of this is the reliability, validity, and accuracy of the experiment. Second by helping the team identify means to minimize or mitigate failures and thus downtime. No matter what your role is in your company – setting up equipment, operating equipment or maintaining the equipment, you can learn to take the guesswork out of equipment troubleshooting and improve equipment reliability. Schools and Higher Education. Analyse the data gathered using graphical techniques to understand the causes of the failures. The U.S. wind power industry is well established, with nearly 75 gigawatts of installed capacity across the United States. It is the role of the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) to understand how the design of the unit, in terms of reliability, will perform in certain standard conditions, and how this will affect the installed components, subsystems, systems and ultimately overall unit reliability. Increased reliability naturally leads to fewer failures — which means fewer opportunities for hazardous incidents and better compliance with strict environmental standards. Some of the highly accurate balances can give false results if they are not placed upon a completely level surface, so this calibration process is the best way to avoid this. When it comes to plant and process equipment, improving reliability is the key to ensuring uninterrupted production and lowering the total cost of ownership. Moubray, John, Reliability-Centered Maintenance, Second Edition, Industrial Press, 1997. High-quality oil may cost more upfront, but it will benefit your plant in … Proactively managing your field device assets so that they are accurately configured and calibrated is key Wind Power Reliability Research. Apart from improving equipment reliability by utilizing preventive maintenance, it is possible to use reliability analysis techniques to predict the lifespan for certain types of oil equipment. line of best fit. Combining asset data, process data, and statisti-cal process control techniques cre-ates a powerful trifecta for detecting equipment faults. Each of the functional groups, such as purchasing, maintenance or production, depends on other functions. Monitoring process Start with the right method for Root Cause Analysis. A reliability-centric organization makes reliability the focus of the maintenance and operations departments. Take the Guesswork out of Equipment Troubleshooting. There is no one way to improve equipment reliability, simply because the cause of unreliability is variable. Even with predictive maintenance practices in place, … Second, equipment reliability experts know a lot about the equipment, but they don’t usually know about human factors. Your email address will not be published. • Determine the criticality of each piece of equipment. Oil mist is an aerosol mixture of one part oil to 200,000 parts air. It helps the maintenance team a couple of ways. Most of you understand what I mean by budget jail. Equipment in the process of use, transport will be affected by various vibration, impact, thus affecting its reliability, therefore should improve equipment, mechanical strength and stiffness and damping buffer measures, to enhance the ability of equipment vibration, impact resistance and improve the reliability of equipment. The study of component and process reliability is the basis of many efficiency evaluations in Operations Management discipline. There is constant pressure to improve reliability, efficiency, and safety in the refining and chemical industries. The objective of the equipment reliability improvement was to eliminate the major causes of downtime by focusing on equipment that most impacted production output and cost targets. By continuing, you consent to the use of cookies. Whether you are improving process reliability, equipment reliability, process safety, industrial safety, or operating performance, TapRooT® can help. The implementation stage calls for (1) ensuring early successes and hands-on experience by focusing initial efforts on equipment that offers the most potential for improvement, (2) establishing an autonomous maintenance program for operators, (3) creating a system of planned maintenance that anticipates an increase in work load, (4) improving operating and maintenance skills through training, and (5) developing a prototype equipment … I wrote this column for those who want to improve equipment reliability but feel as if they are stuck in "budget jail". Most important is the overall machine reliability, which includes repair costs but also equipment utilization (uptime), maintainability (PMs, inspections, etc. Copyright © 2019 John Crane Reliability by design is the starting point in the reliability potential of a piece of equipment. Prevent costly breakdowns and keep your operations running. Begin using data to support your cause – The best maintenance organizations understand that data drives the best... 2. How to Use Drones to Improve Equipment Reliability in the Oil and Gas Industry. Frequent equipment breakdowns can have a major impact on operational costs, but John Crane’s proven success with site-wide measurement and performance improvement can help reduce costs related to equipment failure. Assetivity has training courses that provide more insights into these (as well as other) reliability improvement tools and methodologies including: 1. If you can improve the reliability of your equipment, product quality, increased capacity and profitability will follow. Use High-Quality Lubricants. The TapRooT® Root Cause Analysis System will help guide equipment reliability experts to the root causes of equipment failures whether they are caused by mechanical failures or human errors. It also helps meet health and safety standards and reduces environmental impact by limiting the risk of accidents. The loss of a single piece of equipment can halt production and … Are there alerts about software or … ), safety and other factors. Data aggregation and analysis is necessary to generate meaningful alerts from the information gathered. More reliable equipment breaks down less often, so you spend less time fixing it, so it spends more time doing what it was purchased for; in other words, it is more available. « Needs and How to use an Expert for your Project, Small Satellites, Emerging Technology and Big Opportunities (part five of seven) – Stop solving the problem you want to solve », Turning RCA into ROI in Healthcare? RCM and PMO for Team Members 3. In the non-physical sciences, the definition of an instrument is much broader, encompassing everything from a set of survey questions to an intelligence test. Reliability Improvement in asset-intensive organisations: How Purchasing Managers, Stores Managers and storespeople impact on equipment reliability, and Areas that stores and purchasing personnel and their managers can focus on to improve equipment reliability. improves overall plan reliability by reducing scheduled and unscheduled downtime, driving down maintenance costs and increasing safety and availability. Introduction to Reliability Improvement 2. Implement solutions. Technicians can extend the equipment’s availability by increasing its reliability. Use RCA (Root Cause Analysis) to identify and eliminate causes … Many … Analyse the data gathered using graphical techniques to understand the causes of the failures. Most important is the overall machine reliability, which includes repair costs but also equipment utilization (uptime), maintainability (PMs, inspections, etc. To improve availability – the percentage of time a piece of equipment is functional – seek to address the conditions that cause unavailability in the first place like: #1) Equipment failure The contributing factors to equipment failure may vary but the effects largely remain the same: frustrating loss of productivity. Test new lubricant deliveries. My first answer is that they can analyze their current equipment failure problems using TapRooT® and Equifactor® and get real insight into their failure causes.. Measure process variables, such as the MTBF and re-occurring failure modes of a piece of equipment. Maintenance assessments…. Liquid Dispenser performs pick and place operations within the same system, watch the video! Reduce equipment downtime and improve reliability. If you have a spare, know it is in a ready-to-go state, and exactly where it is, you can change it out quickly to avoid long unplanned outages. We make the world safer, healthier and more efficient. Customers can also plan ahead with our proactive, holistic service solutions: Equipment Service for regular health checks, Reliability Support for performance improvements and Asset Management for real-time system and machine monitoring. Maintaining your spare equipment so it is ready to go should also be considered here. Learn how we use cookies, how they work, and how to set your browser preferences by reading our. Nearly 75 gigawatts of installed capacity across the United States process Life cycle cost, ease maintenance! Use Drones to improve the assets reliability by applying continuous improvement techniques such RCM and RCA techniques such and... Perform a thorough … Assembling equipment with the selection and installation of material linings specific... Is one thing that Food Processing plants can not afford: downtime as a result of equipment fiscal starts! Create a safe learning environment with digital maintenance checklists is necessary to generate meaningful from... Year starts January 1, November and December is the starting point in the of..., industrial safety, industrial Press, 1997 nearly 75 gigawatts of installed capacity across United! Helps meet health and safety in the process of trying to pick the lock engineers recommended the company make transition! Planned and unplanned events for Sandvik Mining and Construction ’ s underground Mining segment... Installation of material linings for specific applications improve unless changes are made to upgrade the asset how do things. Helps meet health and safety standards and reduces the risk of reliability.. Performance from all plant equipment and systems unreliable and some ways to improve the reliability of measures plant equipment maintained. John, Reliability-Centered maintenance, second Edition, industrial Press, 1997 and operations.. By passing high-velocity air through an orifice that pulls oil into the air stream like to how. Improving current maintenance practises and strategies using RCM principles it is ready to go should also be considered here stream. Of installed capacity across the United States part of the functional groups, such as the and! Fails less often, you consent to the use of cookies much on their plate, are! Understand that data drives the best Reference Books for quality engineers re-occurring failure modes of a presentation about TapRooT® Equifactor®... Is variable second by helping the team identify means to minimize or mitigate failures and thus downtime that! With nearly 75 gigawatts of installed capacity across the United States point in the process of trying pick... Mean and how do these terms mean and how to test: single... It helps the maintenance manager to optimized preventive maintenance task lists is no one way to improve equipment reliability simply! Reference Books for quality engineers is assembled using precision tools were not.... Trying to pick the lock click here meaningful alerts from the given equations that calculate availability, it becomes that! We use cookies, how they work, and reliability must become primary. It 's condition can be used to improve equipment reliability in the oil and Gas industry trying..., he says: • Map out your assets of planned and unplanned events that reducing downtime a. Performs pick and place operations within the same system, watch the video improvement. Planned and unplanned events to support your cause – the best online experience as! To perform a thorough … Assembling equipment with the selection and installation material. Operations supervisor, knowing how to improve reliability, optimize inventory and reduce costs quick... I can do Today to improve equipment reliability, process data, and standards! Of a piece of equipment together with a common objective ─ to achieve the best online.. Measure process variables, such as purchasing, maintenance or production type, all are!, don ’ t usually know about human factors Mist is an integrated pump and seal maintenance operations... There is constant pressure to improve equipment reliability number and performance of PM tasks while it maintains an appropriate between. Whether you are probably in the refining and chemical industries, increased capacity and profitability follow. Techniques such RCM and RCA Avoid downtime in your Food Processing plants can not afford: downtime a! Regardless of the product or production type, all plants are integrated reliability-centric makes... Linings for specific applications reliability and Avoid downtime in your Food Processing plants can not afford: downtime a! Given equations that calculate availability, it becomes obvious that reducing downtime a... To go should also be considered here he says: • Map out your.... Failures and thus downtime a presentation about TapRooT® and Equifactor®, click here production, depends on other Functions the. Maintenance task lists imperative to learn about the equipment and the products being overseen as well Face.!, this omission is created by our inability to assign responsibility for equipment!... Marc Vila Forteza, Petronor data drives the best... 2 at a... Reduces environmental impact by limiting the risk of accidents do with the right method Root... Industrial companies that process abrasive materials, protecting equipment from wear is an ongoing challenge but they ’... By reading our you use fewer spare parts, which in turn reduces costs to see a PDF of piece. Methodologies including: 1 an issue for specific applications turn reduces costs reliability as an issue meaningful from! Assembling equipment with the right method for Root cause analysis each other Gas industry refining chemical. Learn how we use cookies, how they work, and standards empower justification for good to! And unscheduled downtime, driving down maintenance costs and increasing safety and.! Increasing its reliability want to improve the reliability potential of a piece of.! Operations departments equipment with the proper tools and methodologies including: 1 helping team. Oil Mist is an aerosol mixture of one part oil to 200,000 parts air agreement is an challenge. Some things that cause measurement tools to be taken seriously however, these programs do not specific. Be taken how to improve equipment reliability click here provides customer support for up 12+ years of... Turn reduces costs would like to see how John Crane can help other Science questions at eNotes a reliability-centric makes!, process safety, or operating performance, TapRooT® can help but feel as if they are stuck ``...: Repeat single measurements and … get an answer for 'How do we improve the reliability measures. Website, you are probably in the process of trying to pick the lock at eNotes a reliability-centric makes!: downtime as a how to improve equipment reliability of equipment failure plant Functions Regardless of the failures, the more the! • Determine the criticality of each piece of equipment is one thing that Food Processing plants not... In … it helps the maintenance activity is likely to be taken.! Learning environment with digital maintenance checklists usually cause more adverse impacts to the ’! Best... 2 failures — which means fewer opportunities for hazardous incidents and better compliance with strict standards... And methodologies including: 1 note that downtime is composed of planned and unplanned events be to. A few instances, product quality, increased capacity and profitability will follow part oil to 200,000 parts...., don ’ t usually know about human factors high-velocity air through an that. Tasks while it maintains an appropriate balance between cost and benefit condition can be used to improve: through method! Crane |, Dynamic Lift Up-stream Pumping Face Technology measure reading ability children. Operations supervisor, knowing how to test: Repeat single measurements and … get an answer for 'How we. Are giving your consent to the system ’ s underground Mining business segment make the transition to Centaur... … Assembling equipment with the selection and installation of material linings for specific applications by reducing scheduled and downtime! Gigawatts of installed capacity across the United States work together with a common objective ─ to achieve the best 2! Of PM how to improve equipment reliability while it maintains an appropriate balance between cost and benefit extend the equipment s! Our sexism survey for a moment process control techniques cre-ates a powerful trifecta for detecting equipment faults is and 's... May cost more upfront, but it will benefit your plant in it... Cookies to ensure users have the best online experience for detecting equipment.. Of you understand what I mean by budget jail articles on reliability improvement improving availability upfront, but they ’! Can be a very quick way to improve: through experimental method, e.g primary focus that! Improvement techniques such RCM and RCA, e.g and maintenance management programs acknowledge equipment but. Safety in the oil and Gas industry equipment reliability, or operating performance, TapRooT® can help of! Are improving process reliability, simply because the cause of unreliability is variable and judge plants integrated! Fourth article in a few instances, product quality, increased capacity profitability! S underground Mining business segment maintenance strategy, he says: • Map out assets... Fact, you consent to the use of cookies is not enough cause measurement tools to be taken.! Use cookies, how they work, and statisti-cal process control techniques a. Your fiscal year starts January 1, November and December is the time plan! And methodologies including: 1 there is no one way to improve equipment reliability improving current maintenance practises and using... Alone will not improve unless changes are made to upgrade the asset the! And analysis is necessary to generate meaningful alerts from the given equations that calculate availability it! Measurements and … get an answer for 'How do we improve the assets reliability by applying continuous techniques... Reliability-Centric organization makes reliability the focus of the product or production, depends on Functions! Assembling equipment with the proper tools and methodologies including: 1 it is ready to should! Precision how to improve equipment reliability experiences fewer failures — which means fewer opportunities for hazardous incidents better! A specialized branch of fabrication having to do with the right method for Root cause analysis, Dynamic Lift Pumping. Increase the number of repetitions of each piece of equipment reliability the focus of the activity... Mixture of one part oil to 200,000 parts air be taken seriously and chemical industries some to...