A. Zilli, “Early Correspondence Between Shah Tahmasp and Akbar,” in Islamic Heritage in South Asian Subcontinent, ed. As non-Turkmen converts to Islam, these Circassian and Georgian (see GEORGIA, especially vii and viii) ḡolāmān were unfettered by clan loyalties and kinship obligations, which was an attractive feature for a ruler like Ṭahmāsp whose childhood and upbringing had been deeply affected by Qezelbāš tribal politics. Bayezid II. As Eḥsān Ešrāqi (Echraqi) has demonstrated (1996, pp. However, as some scholars (Stewart, Newman, Morton, Amoretti) have noted, the religious situation in the 16th century was far more nuanced than this, and the characterization of the Iranian population as homogeneous in its acceptance of and familiarity with formal Imami Twelver Shiʿism is problematic. See also S. C. Welch, Persian Painting: Five Royal Safavid Manuscripts of the Sixteenth Century, New York, 1976, and S. Canby, The Golden Age of Persian Art, 1501-1722, London, 1999. [19], During the final Ottoman invasion of Iran in 1553, Tahmasp seized the initiative and defeated Iskandar Pasha near Erzerum. The reign of Mehmed II’s immediate successor, Bayezid II (1481–1512), was largely a period of rest. Introduction. Finally, the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp is particularly rich in terms of historiography (For details see the primary sources subsection of the bibliography). 301-9. Later sources, such as Ebrāhim Beg Monši’s Tāriḵ-e ʿālam ārā-ye ʿabbāsi and Moḥammad-Yusof Vāla Eṣfahāni’s Ḵold-e barin, also refer to Shah Ṭahmāsp’s reign as the zenith of the calligraphic and pictorial arts. On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, Tahmasp shot an arrow at him. It would be a divination from one of Jāmi’s (d. 1492) ḡazals, or lyrical poems, that convinced the shah to rebuild the mausoleum of the famous Timurid poet in Herat, ironically first destroyed by the shah himself some years earlier after hearing that Jāmi had supposedly been an anti-Shiʿite (Dickson, 1958, p. 190). It was during Čuha Solṭān’s ascendancy that the Uzbek threat to the east was at its gravest. Moreover, Esmāʿil insisted that there should be a religious tutor to instruct the young prince in the principal rituals and ceremonies of Twelver Shiʿism, and the religious notable and prominent Persian urbanite of Herat, Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Moḥammad b. Amir Yusof, was appointed to the ṣadārat-e šāhzāda (the prince’s tutorship and guardianship). The shah iran. Ismāʿīl’s successor, Ṭahmāsp I (reigned 1524–76), encouraged carpet weaving on the scale of a state industry. in Persian the word of Madjnun is equal to Melancholia and Hebephrenia … [3][4] One of his most notable successors, the greatest Safavid emperor, Abbas I (also known as Abbas the Great) would fully implement and finalize this policy and the creation of this new layer in Iranian society. While Ṭahmāsp could obviate some of his concerns regarding familial revolt by having his brothers and sons routinely transferred around to various governorships in the empire, he realized that any long-lasting solutions would involve minimizing the political and military presence of the Qezelbāš as a whole. Abbas the Great or Abbas I of Persia (Persian: شاه عباس بزرگ ‎; 27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered as one of the greatest rulers of Persian history and the Safavid dynasty.He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda. A. Soudavar has examined the cultural implications of Ṭahmāsp’s diplomacy in “The Early Safavids and their Cultural Interactions with Surrounding States,” in Iran and the Surrounding World: Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics, ed. see Sharaf Khan Bidlisi [Šaraf Ḵān Bedlisi], The Sharafnama, or, The History of the Kurdish Nation, tr. Bombay, 3 vols., 1955-56; ed. Given that the 52-year reign of Abu’l-Fatḥ Ṭahmāsp (posthumously referred to as ḵāqān-e jannat-makān) was the longest of all Safavid rulers, the absence of any full-scale biography by a Western scholar is surprising (for a comprehensive biography and bibliography in Persian see Pārsādust.) On 9 July 1533 a royal decree was issued declaring that Karaki was not only the supreme religious authority in the Safavid court but that henceforth he was the “Deputy of the [Twelfth] Imam” (nāʾeb al-emām), an unsettling claim for many orthodox Shiʿite clerics both in and outside of Persia. Shāh Ṭahmāsp, Tazkira-i Shāh Ṭahmāsp (The Autobiography of Shah Ṭahmāsp I of Iran [1514–1576]) (Teheran: Intishārāt-i Sharq, 1984); German trans. European sources include Anthony Jenkinson’s travel account in A compendious and brief declaration of the journey [...] from [...] London into the land of Persia, passing in this same journey thorow Russia, Moscovia, and Mare Caspium [...] 14May [...] 1561, ed. See ʿA. and tr. Tahmasp was the son of Shah Ismail I and Shah-Begi Khanum (known under the title Tajlu Khanum) of the Turcoman Mawsillu tribe. 1-29. Alqāṣ Mirzā and sixty followers sought asylum at the court of Solaymān the Magnificent, and convinced the Ottoman sultan to launch an invasion of the Safavid dominions. Hist. At the age of eight, Ṭahmāsp found himself in the center of a power struggle between Turkmens and “Tājiks,” that is Persians, personified in Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu and Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din, over the control of Herat. M.-ʿA. Nevertheless, one court faction supported Ismail, while another backed Haydar Mirza Safavi, the son of a Georgian. Realizing that his plan to place Sām Mirzā on the throne was no longer tenable, Solaymān withdrew his Ottoman forces from Mesopotamia (with the exception of Baghdad) in 1535. 387-405; and Rasul Jaʿfariān, Din va siāsat dar dawra-ye Ṣafavi, Tehran, 1991. Perhaps more problematic for the young shah was the revelation that his brother, Sām Mirzā, had been in secret correspondence with Solaymān and that this Ottoman invasion was in fact designed to remove Ṭahmāsp and place a pro-Ottoman Safavid monarch on the throne in Tabriz. Too young to rule in his own right, Tahmasp came under the control of t… For another perspective on Širāzi, see Rasul Jaʿfariān, “Didgāh-hā-ye siāsi-e ʿAbdi Beg Širāzi dar bāra-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp Ṣafavi,” Ṣafaviya dar ʿarṣa-ye din, farhang va siāsat, ed. For Qazvin, see Ehsan Echraqi [Eḥsān Ešrāqi], “Le Dār al-Salṭana de Qazvin, deuxième capitale des Safavides,” in Safavid Persia: The History and Politics of an Islamic Society, ed. A. H. Morton’s translation of the account of the Venetian agent, Michele Membré (Mission to the Lord Sophy of Persia (1539-1542), tr. See his Encyclopædia Iranica article on Moḥtašam of Kashan, and “The Palace of Praise and the Melons of Time: Descriptive Patterns in ‘Abdi Bayk Shirazi’s Garden of Eden,” Eurasian Studies: the Skilliter Center-Instituto per l’Oriente Journal for Balkan, Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolian, Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Central Asian Studies 2, 2003, pp. The Turkmen Qezelbāš resisted, killing two successive wakils in the process, but could not halt the trend. In this regard, Sholeh Quinn gives Ê¿Abbās an easy ride, passing no value judgements on his treatment of his children (pp. The latter half of Shah Ṭahmāsp’s reign saw the emergence of a new political and courtly agency in the sayyeds and their various networks intersecting cities like Tabriz, Qazvin, Isfahan, and the recently incorporated centers of Rašt, Astarābād, and Āmol. 39-58. J. Homāʾi, 4 vols., Tehran, 1954; ed. 245-91; Memoirs of Shah Tahmasp, ed. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. While Tabriz was quickly conquered in July 1548, it soon became apparent that Alqāṣ Mirzā’s claims that all the Qezelbāš tribes were eager to embrace him as the new shah were grossly exaggerated, and the campaign quickly turned into a lengthy, meandering expedition of plunder. [25] Of the latter, Mohammed Khodabanda was regarded as unfit to rule because he was almost blind, and his younger brother, Ismail, had been imprisoned by Tahmasp since 1555. N. Keddie and R. Matthee, Seattle, 2002, pp. Captured by the Iranians, his life was spared but he was condemned to spend the rest of his life in prison in the fortress of Qahqaha. 349-437; locations of published documents for this period are available in R. Schimkoreit’s Regesten publizierter safawidischer Herrscherurkunden, Berlin, 1982, pp. into German by Paul Horn, “Die Denkwurdigkeiten des Shah Ṭahmāsp I. von Persien,” ZDMG 44, 1890, pp. Iran, VI, 1986, pp. tr. 4 (1949): 46-53. p. 46-53 www.jstor.org The Cleveland Museum of Art. J. Calmard, Paris, 1993, pp. She also built relationships with the wife and sister of Ṭahmāsp I, shah of Persia. Hakluyt, I, p. 150). As Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti (p. 642) has noted, “the modern originality of Persian Shiʿism has its roots [with Shah Ṭahmāsp].” This interest is undoubtedly motivated by a desire to chart the growth of Twelver Shiʿism in Persia after Shah Esmāʿil’s proclamation in 1501 that his subjects should henceforth embrace the sanctity of the Twelve Imams and anathematize the first three caliphs, Abu Bakr, ʿOmar, and ʿOṯmān. Tahmasp lost patience and ordered a general massacre of the Takkalu tribe. M. Minovi, Tehran, 1964. The Qizilbash leaders fought among themselves for the right to be regents over Tahmasp, and by doing so held most of the effective power in hands in the empire. Olāma Beg Takkalu returned to Persia in 1532 with an Ottoman patron, Fil Pasha, and 50,000 troops. Recently, two key sources for the Safavid period and the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp have become available: Budāq Monši Qazvini, Jawāher al-aḵbār, ed. One of the most focused studies of a particular aspect of his empire is Martin Dickson’s dissertation, “Shah Tahmāsb and the Uzbeks: the Duel for Khurāsān with ʿUbayd Khān, 930-946/1524-1540,” Princeton University, 1958. [5] This peace lasted for 30 years, until it was broken in the time of Shah Mohammed Khodabanda. 50-70, and provides a detailed survey of the different bureaucratic and military offices in “The Principal Offices of the Ṣafawid State During the Reign of Ṭahmāsp I (930-84/1524-76),” BSOAS 24, 1961, pp. In turn, many of these transplanted women became wives and concubines of Ṭahmāsp, and the Safavid harem emerged as a competitive, and sometimes lethal, arena of ethnic politics as cliques of Turkmen, Circassian, and Georgian women and courtiers vied with each other for the shah’s attention. 1, Tehran, 2000, pp. diss., Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg University, 2000; A. Allouche, The Origins and Development of the Ottoman-Safavid Diplomatic Conflict, 906-966/1500-1555, Berlin, 1983; Jean Aubin, “Per Viam Portugalensem: Autour d’un projet diplomatique de Maximilien II,” Mare Luso-Indicum 4, 1980, pp. At the same time, Esmāʿil was reluctant to rid himself entirely of his status as the perfect spiritual guide (moršed-e kāmel) who was openly venerated by his Qezelbāš disciples (morids) as not only the direct descendent of ʿAli and Moḥammad, but the promised Mahdi who would usher in the Day of Judgment. It is on account of Moḥtašam’s fine strophic elegy (marṯia davazdah-band) on the martyrdom at Karbalāʾ, who was publicly reprobated for his “secular” poetry, that elegies of the Twelve Imams grew in popularity among those poets dependent on court patronage. His letter of remorse never reached Suleiman and he was forced to flee abroad to avoid execution. So that whenever the king wishes, these singers can at once provide songs and music to give him a festive time (Navāʾi, 1971, p. 59). The popular interpretation in today’s scholarship seems to be of Ṭahmāsp, surrounded by overbearing Qezelbāš amirs until 1533, continuing in the footsteps of his father and adopting the courtier lifestyle of a bon vivant who did little to police unorthodox and millenarian behavior. Probably the most detailed court chronicle of this period, produced shortly after Ṭahmāsp’s reign, is Qāżi Aḥmad b. Šaraf-al-Din Qomi’s Ḵolāṣat al-tawāriḵ, ed. He persuaded Suleiman that if he invaded the Iranians would rise up and overthrow Tahmasp. ṬAHMĀSP I, second ruler of the Safavid dynasty (b. village of Šāh-ābād near Isfahan, 22 February, 1514; d.Qazvin, 14 May, 1576). Haydar was killed and Ismail emerged triumphant as Shah Ismail II.[27]. By naming his two-year old son as governor, and placing him in the care of the chief amir (see also AMIR-AL-OMARĀʾ) of the recently-incorporated Mawṣellu tribe, Esmāʿil was not only redistributing tribal power but also inducing a much-needed physical manifestation of the imperial Safavid family (which was considered sacred) in a troubled peripheral area of his nascent empire. R. Savory discusses Ṭahmāsp’s reign in Iran Under the Safavids, Cambridge, 1980, pp. The Art of Eternal Rest: Ottoman Mausoleums and Tombstones Shortly before his death in February 1588, he entrusted the collection and arrangement of his literary remains to the poet and literary biographer Taqi-al-Din Kāšāni. In 1533 Selim s son, the Ottoman sultan Süleyman I (the Magnificent), set out on his campaign against the Two Iraqs. After Homāyun had been invited to Persia in 1542, Shah Ṭahmāsp dispatched an edict (farmān) to the governor of Herat, Moḥammad Šaraf-al-Din Oḡli stating that “it is mandatory that the Ḥāfeẓ (memorizer of the Qurʾān) Ṣāber Burqāq, Mawlānā Qāsem Qānuni (“the qānun player”), Ostād Šāh Moḥammad Sornāʾi (“the flute player”), the Ḥāfeẓ Dust-Moḥammad Ḵᵛāfi, Ostād Yusof Mawdud, and other famous reciters and singers who may be in the city, be constantly present. Principally, we have the shah’s own memoirs, completed in 1561, as Taḏkera-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp; ed. Ṭahmāsp relates how God had revealed Himself through miraculous light to the Prophet Moses on Mount Sinai, and that He spoke to the Prophet Moḥammad from behind a curtain during the Night of the Ascension (meʿrāj). By this treaty historical Armenia and Georgia were divided equally between the two, the Ottoman Empire obtained most of Iraq, including Baghdad, which gave them access to the Persian Gulf, while the Persians retained their former capital Tabriz and all their other north-western territories in the Caucasus (Dagestan, Azerbaijan) and as they were prior to the wars. See also M. Szuppe, “Palais et jardins: le complexe royal des premiers safavides à Qazvin, milieu XVIᵉ-début XVIIᵉ siècles,” in Sites et monuments disparus d’après les temoignages de voyageurs, ed. For the city of Ardabil, see K. Rizvi, “Its Mortar Mixed with the Sweetness of Life: Architecture and Ceremonial at the Shrine of Safi al-Din Ishaq Ardabili during the Reign of Shah Tahmasb I,” Muslim World 90, 2000, pp. Ṭahmāsp I, (born March 3, 1514, Shāhābād, near Eá¹£fahān, Safavid Iran—died 1576, Kazvin? Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Ḵᵛāndamir’s son, Amir Maḥmud, produced a valuable first-hand account of Shah Ṭahmāsp’s intermittent campaigns against the Uzbeks in Khorasan in Tāriḵ-e Šāh Esmāʿil va Šāh Ṭahmāsp, ed. For Safavid genealogies, see Šayḵ Ḥosayn Pirzāda Zāhedi, Selselat al-nasab-e ṣafawiyya, ed. During this period, the Ottomans committed a genocide against the Armenian people which tarnished the name of the Empire in the eyes of the world and history and still haunts the modern Turkish republic. Jarrāḥi, Tehran, 1994. This internal strife was only complicated by the first of many Uzbek invasions of Khorasan that culminated in the temporary seizure of Ṭus and Astarābād. Köpek Solṭān was killed at Šarur in 1527. READ PAPER. It should be noted that many of the court chronicles completed during or shortly after the reign of Ṭahmāsp are often in large part recensions of grander, universal histories such as Ḡiāṯ˚-al-Din b. Homām-al-Din Ḵᵛāndamir’s Ḥabib al-siar (ed. It is generally believed that at a certain (the date is still debated) moment, Ṭahmāsp underwent a spiritual rebirth whereby he rejected his sinful ways and thereafter outlawed all irreligious behavior (elḥād) in his empire: taverns and brothels were closed, and social restrictions were increased. Tahmasp I (/ t ɑː ˈ m ɑː s p /; Persian pronunciation: [tæhˈmɒːseb], Persian: شاه تهماسب یکم ‎) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.He was the son and successor of Ismail I.. 225-46; Devin Stewart “The First Shaykh al-Islām of the Safavid Capital Qazvin,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 116, 1996, pp. Although many prominent poets left Persia for the Indian Subcontinent, two of the best poets of the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp, Waḥši [Vahshi] of Bāfq (d. 1583) and Moḥtašam of Kashan (d. 1587-88), managed to stay in Persia, despite supplementing their collection of religious odes with erotic ghazals. Consistent with Turco-Mongolian customs in terms of corporate family sovereignty, he was allocated nominal control of the lucrative province of Khorasan, and in 1516 he was placed under the tutorship (lalegi) of Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu, the former governor of Āmed (see AMIDA; now Diārbakr) under the Āq Qoyunlus. See also Sām Mirzā, Taḏkera-ye toḥfa-e Sāmi, ed. ʿA. One of Shah Tahmasp's more lasting achievements was his encouragement of the Persian rug industry on a national scale, possibly a response to the economic effects of the interruption of the Silk Road carrying trade during the Ottoman wars. Deemed too old and no longer able to address these internal and external threats, Div Solṭān was executed on 5 July 1527 by order of the shah, and control of the Safavid Empire was transferred to the sole remaining member of the Qezelbāš triumvirate, Čuha Solṭān Takkalu. 119–20), nor on his elimination of such loyal and valuable commanders as Farhād Khān (pp. The oft-repeated anecdote about the shah coldly rebuffing the Englishman, Anthony Jenkinson, as proof of bigoted xenophobia in the Safavid court is, in fact, taken out of context; shortly after the incident, Jenkinson learned from the governor of Ardabil, ʿAbd-Allāh Khan Ostājlu, that “the Sophie himselfe meant mee much good at the first, and thought to have given me good entertainment” (Jenkinson, ed. The shah paid absolute patronage and attention to these groups.” (Budāq Monši Qazvini, p. 144). 563-649; 45, 1891, pp. tr. In 1555, however, he regularized relations with the Ottoman Empire through the Peace of Amasya. When Shah Ṭahmāsp died in 1576, the empire he had inherited from his father had not only been maintained but also expanded during the reign of the most successful and expansionary sultan known to the Ottoman Empire. 493-503. During the tenth century there were two distinguished Jewish families in Baghdad, *Netira and Aaron. [12][13][14] Tahmasp also responded by expressing his friendship to the Emperor. Fig. By the time of the fourth invasion in 1553, it was clear that Ṭahmāsp had a policy of annexation and resettlement in mind as he incorporated control of Tbilisi (Tiflis) and the region of Kartli while physically transplanting more than 30,000 people, mostly women and children, to the central Iranian plateau. 635-37). This would be the starting point for the corps of ḡolāmān-e ḵāṣṣa-ye-e šarifa, or royal slaves, who would dominate the Safavid military in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. U. Haarmann and P. Bachmann, Beirut, 1979, pp. In 1528 Chuha Sultan and the shah marched with their army to reassert control of the region. Zainab Sultan Khanum, widow of his younger brother Shahzada ‘Abdl Fath Muiz ud-din Bahram Mirza, and sister of Imad ud-din Shirvani. No other feature of this reign has attracted more attention among scholars than the personal beliefs of Shah Ṭahmāsp and the extent to which they influenced the official religious policy of the Safavid state. He and his men plundered Hamadān, Qom, and Kāšān, but failed to breach the defensive fortifications of Isfahan. 9-29, and M. Mazzaoui, “Shah Ṭahmāsp and the Diaries of Marino Sanuto (1524-1533),” in Die islamische Welt zwischen Mittelalter und Neuzeit, ed. Šaraf Ḵān Bedlisi ], from Infogalactic: the á¹¢afavids were still faced with the Stupa... Rumlu, Aḥsan al-tawāriḵ, ed div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the Šāmlu amir executed b.. Beg Gorji, a sister of Imad ud-din Shirvani Inc. All Rights.. 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On architecture and urban dynamics under Shah Ṭahmāsp, and Kāšān, but could not halt the.. He was the son of Shah Ismail, the thought of life and the Hidden Imam, Chicago,,. S longstanding recognition and sponsorship of Christian Armenian ( see also ARMENIA and Iran vi, pp Shaykh al-Islām the! Plan of the Qizilbash 1593 and died in 1631, during the birth of her child! His brother ’ s diplomacy, see I the community followed however by the Ottoman-Safavid. Savory discusses Ṭahmāsp ’ s ascendancy that the Uzbek threat to the.... And Qāżi Aḥmad Ḡaffāri Qazvini, p. 144 ) sought resolution through dialogue and conciliation became buffer zones popular.... And they showed concern for the welfare of the community returned to Persia in 1532 with an patron! Founder of Safavid court Culture and popular piety his wakil, or, the of... Of Khorasan the process, but could not halt the trend only 10 years old he! His ally, Chuha Sultan Takkalu, turned against him and urged the Shah it failed to him. 1532€“1555 ) enemies, the Shadow of God and the next world.... Reproduced by S. c. Welch and m. Dickson in the Ottoman court Ṭahmāsp period. the Qezelbāš! Spanning from the á¹¢afavid governor Muḥammad Sultan Khan, Costa Mesa, Calif., 2004 ) 1319,,! Mirak Eṣfahāni, Mir Moṣawwar, Ostād Shah Maḥmud Nišāpuri, Mollā Rostam ʿAli Haravi 2016, 13:03... I at Uḍḍiyāna with the Ottoman court, p. 144 ) arrived a! Where the Ottomans abandoned him as an embarrassment was promptly replaced by that of the Šāmlu executed... Ein Erlass Tahmasps I. von Persien, ” Islamic Studies 2, 1963, pp, Chicago,,... Into the X-XI c. CE was last modified on 5 January 2016, 13:03! About your tag for aspects of this reign have been examined in A. Kozlova... And Rasul Jaʿfariān, Din va siāsat dar dawra-ye Ṣafavi, Tehran, 1990, and Akules Selim to! ʿAli Haravi sheesha ) in the time of Shah Mohammed Khodabanda Ḵāčin, Ṭātef, and Qāżi Aḥmad Qazvini! Of God and the Hidden Imam, Chicago, 1984, pp, behind brother... Legations were sent in 1532 with an Ottoman patron, Fil Pasha, and Kāšān, but to... His wakil, Ḥosayn Khan Šāmlu as his wakil, or plenipotentiary from killing Ismail responses...